This tutorial was generated from an IPython notebook that can be downloaded here.

Framework Cookbook

littlemcmc only needs a logp_dlogp_func, which is framework-agnostic. To illustrate this, this cookbook implements linear in multiple frameworks, and samples them with littlemcmc. At the end of this notebook, we load the inference traces and sampler statistics into ArviZ and do some basic visualizations.

import littlemcmc as lmc

Create and Visualize Data

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt


true_params = np.array([0.5, -2.3, -0.23])

N = 50
t = np.linspace(0, 10, 2)
x = np.random.uniform(0, 10, 50)
y = x * true_params[0] + true_params[1]
y_obs = y + np.exp(true_params[-1]) * np.random.randn(N)

plt.plot(x, y_obs, ".k", label="observations")
plt.plot(t, true_params[0]*t + true_params[1], label="ground truth")


import torch

class LinearModel(torch.nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(LinearModel, self).__init__()
        self.m = torch.nn.Parameter(torch.tensor(0.0, dtype=torch.float64))
        self.b = torch.nn.Parameter(torch.tensor(0.0, dtype=torch.float64))
        self.logs = torch.nn.Parameter(torch.tensor(0.0, dtype=torch.float64))

    def forward(self, x, y):
        mean = self.m * x + self.b
        loglike = -0.5 * torch.sum((y - mean) ** 2 * torch.exp(-2 * self.logs) + 2 * self.logs)
        return loglike

torch_model = torch.jit.script(LinearModel())
torch_params = [torch_model.m, torch_model.b, torch_model.logs]
args = [torch.tensor(x, dtype=torch.double), torch.tensor(y_obs, dtype=torch.double)]

def torch_logp_dlogp_func(x):
    for i, p in enumerate(torch_params): = torch.tensor(x[i])
        if p.grad is not None:

    result = torch_model(*args)

    return result.detach().numpy(), np.array([p.grad.numpy() for p in torch_params])
298 µs ± 43.8 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1000 loops each)

Please see ` <>`__ for a working example. Theoretically, however, all that’s needed is to run the following snippet:

trace, stats = lmc.sample(
    logp_dlogp_func=torch_logp_dlogp_func, model_ndim=3, tune=500, draws=1000, chains=4,


from jax.config import config
config.update("jax_enable_x64", True)

import jax
import jax.numpy as jnp

def jax_model(params):
    mean = params[0] * x + params[1]
    loglike = -0.5 * jnp.sum((y_obs - mean) ** 2 * jnp.exp(-2 * params[2]) + 2 * params[2])
    return loglike

def jax_model_and_grad(x):
    return jax_model(x), jax.grad(jax_model)(x)

def jax_logp_dlogp_func(x):
    v, g = jax_model_and_grad(x)
    return np.asarray(v), np.asarray(g)
/Users/george/miniconda3/lib/python3.7/site-packages/jax/lib/ UserWarning: No GPU/TPU found, falling back to CPU.
  warnings.warn('No GPU/TPU found, falling back to CPU.')
269 µs ± 48.6 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1 loop each)

Please see ` <>`__ for a working example. Theoretically, however, all that’s needed is to run the following snippet:

trace, stats = lmc.sample(
    logp_dlogp_func=jax_logp_dlogp_func, model_ndim=3, tune=500, draws=1000, chains=4,


import pymc3 as pm
import theano

with pm.Model() as pm_model:
    pm_params = pm.Flat("pm_params", shape=3)
    mean = pm_params[0] * x + pm_params[1]
    pm.Normal("obs", mu=mean, sigma=pm.math.exp(pm_params[2]), observed=y_obs)

pm_model_and_grad = pm_model.fastfn([pm_model.logpt] + theano.grad(pm_model.logpt, pm_model.vars))

def pm_logp_dlogp_func(x):
    return pm_model_and_grad(pm_model.bijection.rmap(x))
46.3 µs ± 3.94 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 10000 loops each)
trace, stats = lmc.sample(
    progressbar=False,  # Progress bars don't render well in reStructuredText docs...

Visualize Traces with ArviZ

Just to sanity check our results, let’s visualize all the traces using ArviZ. At the time of writing there’s no way to easily load the np.ndarrays arrays that littlemcmc returns into an az.InferenceDataset. Hopefully one day we’ll have an az.from_littlemcmc method… but until then, please use this code snippet!

def arviz_from_littlemcmc(trace, stats):
    return az.InferenceData(
        posterior=az.dict_to_dataset({"x": trace}),
        sample_stats=az.dict_to_dataset({k: v.squeeze() for k, v in stats.items()})
import arviz as az

dataset = arviz_from_littlemcmc(trace, stats)